Hamburg Buddhist Studies
Buddhism has enjoyed a prominent place in the study of Asian religious ideas at Hamburg University for almost 100 years. With the publication series Hamburg Buddhist Studies the Numata Center for Buddhist Studies aims to honor this long-standing commitment to research and share the results of this tradition with the community of scholars and the wider public. The volume will be available in book form and online, published by Hamburg University Press and Projektverlag.
Vol. 1: Anālayo: The Genesis of the Bodhisattva Ideal
Vol. 2: Anālayo: The Dawn of Abhidharma
Vol. 3: Lin/Radich (Eds.): A Distant Mirror
Vol. 4: Silk: Buddhist Cosmic Unity
Vol. 5: Radich: The "Mahāparinirvāṇa-mahāsūtra" and the Emergence of "Tathāgatagarbha" Doctrine
Vol. 6: Anālayo: The Foundation History of the Nuns’ Order.
Vol. 7: Rheingans: The Eighth Karmapa’s Life and his Interpretation of the Great Seal
Vol. 8: Anālayo: Buddhapada and the Bodhisattva Path
Vol. 9: Andrews / Chen / Liu (eds.): Rules of Engagement
Vol. 10: Poceski (ed.): Communities of Memory and Interpretation
Vol. 11: Bayer: The Life and Works of mKhan-po gZhan-dga’ (1871–1927)
Vol. 12: Schmithausen: Fleischverzehr und Vegetarismus im indischen Buddhismus
Vol. 13: Hanner (ed.): Buddhism and Scepticism
Steffen Döll (Universität Hamburg) | Michael Zimmermann (Universität Hamburg)
Bhikkhu Anālayo (Universität Hamburg)
Lucia Dolce (School of Oriental and African Studies, London)
Franz-Karl Ehrhard (Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München)
Mario Poceski (University of Florida, Gainesville, USA)
Petra Kieffer-Puelz (Academy of Sciences and Literature, Mainz)
Jim Rheingans (The University of Sydney, Australien)
Vol. 13: Buddhism and Scepticism
by Oren Hanner (ed.)
Is Buddhism's attitude towards accepted forms of knowledge sceptical? Are Pyrrhonian scepticism and classical Buddhist scholasticism related in their respective applications and expressions of doubt? In what way and to what degree is Critical Buddhism an offshoot of modern scepticism? Questions such as these as well as related issues are explored in the present collection, which brings together examinations of systematic doubt in the traditions of Buddhism from a variety of perspectives. What results from the perceptive observations and profound analytical insights of the seven essays is a rich and multi-faceted picture of two families of philosophical systems––scepticism and Buddhism––that seem both akin and at odds, both related and distant at the same time.
Oren Hanner (ed), Buddhism and Scepticism: Historical, Philosophical, and Comparative Perspectives. Hamburg Buddhist Studies 13, Bochum/Freiburg: projektverlag 2020.
Vol. 12: Fleischverzehr und Vegetarismus im indischen Buddhismus
by Lambert Schmithausen
This in-depth study by Lambert Schmithausen explores the relationship of Indian Buddhism to meat eating from the beginning of Buddhism to about 500 CE. Its main focus lies on the thoughts, arguments and motifs of the (lacto-)vegetarian Buddhist movement as documented in various texts of Mahayana Buddhism, available in Indian, Tibetan and Chinese sources.
Volume 3 provides critical editions of some of the most important source texts, volume 2 contains supplementary information and documentation as endnotes.
Available in German only:
Vol. 11: The Life and Works of mKhan-po gZhan-dga’ (1871–1927)
by Achim Bayer
Now available as free PDF: Link
The rDzogs-chen master and scholar mKhan-po gZhan-dga’ is perhaps best known for being unknown. Raised in the vast plains of northern Khams, he came to inherit the scholarly tradition of rDza dPal-sprul Rin-po-che and revitalize the college belonging to rDzogs-chen monastery, in the shadow of the snowcapped Ru-dam mountain range. In the spirit of the non-sectarian movement, students from all traditions of Khams came to learn from him, some following him as he moved on to teach near the capital sDe-dge dGon-chen, to become the tutor of the Tā’i Si-tu incarnation at dPal-spungs and to establish the college at mKhyenbrtse’i-dbang-po’s estate near rDzong-gsar. In this way, this scion of nomad nobility eventually became a teacher at the most important centres of the settled communities, a rNying-ma-pa established and respected among the most exalted Sa-skya-pa scholars. gZhan-dga’s specific curriculum led to a wave of colleges being founded by his disciples in the rNying-ma, bKa’-brgyud and Sa-skya traditions, effecting a leap in higher education all over the Tibetan plateau.
The reason for gZhan-dga’s fame was at the same time the reason for his invisibility: in order to provide a curriculum for students from all Tibetan Buddhist denominations, he had written his textbooks based on the explanations of Indian Buddhist masters exclusively, without mixing them with even a hair (spu tsam yang ma bsres par) of specific Tibetan opinions, including his own.
gZhan-dga’s activity unfolded in the network of social and spiritual issues of his time, issues as diverse as the relation between Pramāņa and Madhyamaka, the royal succession of sDe-dge and the war of 1908/09, the debates about gZhan-stong and the interpretation of cittamātra, the succession of the mKhyenbrtse estate, the role of monasticism in Khams-pa society, the enthronement of Dil-mgo mKhyen-brtse Rin-po-che, the British-backed offensive in sDe-dge near the end of WWI, the ethical and political dimensions of debate, the rDzogs-chen lineage of ’Bo-gangs-dkar Rin-po-che, rDza dPal-sprul’s Klong chen snying thig lineage(s), Sanskrit studies in Khams, the revival of Go-rams-pa studies, and, at the very peak, Klong-chen-pa’s interpretation of Madhyamaka. Readers will find musings on these issues interwoven with gZhan-dga’s biography and a catalogue of his works.
Achim Bayer, The Life and Works of mKhan-po gZhan-dga’ (1871–1927) Hamburg Buddhist Studies 11, Bochum/Freiburg: Projektverlag 2019.
Vol. 10: Communities of Memory and Interpretation
by Mario Poceski (ed.)
Now available as free PDF: Link
The five studies in this volume show unprecedented efforts by each individual contributor to engage in micro-historical research on categories and themes such as lineage, hagiography, and sacred texts in different historical contexts. (Jiang Wu, University of Arizona)
Communities of Memory and Interpretation is a fascinating collection of wellresearched essays that all feature important methodological reflections in addition to detailed and insightful textual analysis or fieldwork scholarship. The volume consistently highlights the theme of how the respective traditions developed a sense of legitimacy and legacy based on canonicity and the various repetitions and reversals of at times disturbing or perplexing paradigms and exegetical strategies to establish and maintain lineal identity and authority. (Steven Heine, Florida International University)
Mario Poceski (ed.), Communities of Memory and InterpretationHamburg Buddhist Studies 10, Bochum/Freiburg: Projektverlag 2018.
The table of contents and introduction can be downloaded here.
Vol. 9: Rules of Engagement
by Susan Andrews / Jinhua Chen / Cuilan Liu (eds.)
Now available as free PDF: Link
Recent years have seen heightened interest in the ritual, juridical, and generally practical aspects of the Buddhist tradition. The contributions to Rules of Engagement build on this trend while venturing beyond the established boundaries of discourse in specialized academic disciplines, presenting state-of-the-art research on the vinaya in all of its breadth and depth. They do so not only by tracing Buddhist textual traditions but also by showcasing the vast variety of practices that are the object of such regulations and throw a new light on the social implications such protocols have had in South, Central, and East Asia.
Susan Andrews / Jinhua Chen / Cuilan Liu (eds.), Rules of EngagementHamburg Buddhist Studies 9, Bochum/Freiburg: Projektverlag 2017.
The table of contents can be downloaded here.
Vol. 8: Buddhapada and the Bodhisattva Path
by Bhikkhu Anālayo
Now available as free PDF: Link
Building on his ground-breaking The Genesis of the Bodhisattva Ideal, with the present monograph Bhikkhu Anālayo approaches a closely related topic from the perspective of the bodily dimension as evident in the thirty-two marks with which, according to tradition, the Buddha was endowed. The study begins by proposing that a cross-fertilization between text and art has influenced the conception of one of these marks, namely the wheel-marks on the soles of the Buddha’s feet. By way of a comparative study of the early discourses, Anālayo proceeds to show how the thirty-two marks – initially nearly imperceptible features – came to be more clearly visible and acquired salvific power. Eventually, he argues, these turned into a psychosomatic chart for the bodhisattva path and thereby set a precedent for the prediction (commonplace in later Buddhist doctrine) that assures an aspiring bodhisattva of becoming a Buddha in the future.
Anālayo, Buddhapada and the Bodhisattva Path. Hamburg Buddhist Studies 8, Bochum/Freiburg: Projektverlag 2017.
Vol. 7: The Eighth Karmapa’s Life and his Interpretation of the Great Seal
by Jim Rheingans
Now available as free PDF: Link
This book investigates Mikyö Dorje’s biographies and carries out case studies of some of his mahāmudrā (Great Seal) teachings, Buddhist instructions for the acquisition of meditative insight. After surveying a variety of textual sources for the study of the Karmapa’s life and works, this book shows how he developed into one of the most productive scholars of his tradition, who, located within the shifting religious and political hegemonies of his time, managed to acquire a status of singular importance to his school. Rheingans then goes on to analyse Mikyö Dorje’s mahāmudrā teachings by examining selected texts that contain such instructions in historical and doctrinal context. This study contends that the Kagyüpa mahāmudrā constitutes less a static system than an independent key instruction to be adapted by the guru to different students’ requirements and are thus chiefly characterised by didactic pragmatism.
Jim Rheingans, The Eighth Karmapa’s Life and his Interpretation of the Great Seal. Hamburg Buddhist Studies 7, Bochum/Freiburg: Projektverlag 2017.
Vol. 6: The Foundation History of the Nuns’ Order
by Bhikkhu Anālayo
This book is a companion to Bhikkhu Anālayo’s previous studies of the Genesis of the Bodhisattva Ideal and the Dawn of Abhidharma. In the present book he examines the foundation history of the Buddhist order of nuns, based on a detailed study of the canonical accounts of this event preserved in Chinese, Pāli, Sanskrit, and Tibetan. Anālayo investigates how the different and at times conflicting parts of the textual account of this particular episode gradually evolved to constitute the foundation history in the way in which it is now extant. His findings put into perspective the Buddha’s refusal to found an order of nuns as well as the prediction that the going forth of women supposedly spells decline for the whole Buddhist tradition, showing how these elements would have arisen and then become part of the foundation history.
Vol. 5: The "Mahāparinirvāṇa-mahāsūtra" and the Emergence of "Tathāgatagarbha" Doctrine
von Michael Radich
Famously, tathāgatagarbha doctrine holds that every sentient being has within the body a womb for Buddhas, or an embryonic Buddha – the potential for full buddhahood. Previous scholars have seen this doctrine as originating in the Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra. In this book, Michael Radich argues that rather, the Mahāparinirvāṇa-mahāsūtra is most likely our earliest extant tathāgatagarbha text. Radich then argues that tathāgatagarbha ideas originated as part of a wider pattern of docetic Buddhology – ideas holding that Buddhas are not really as they appear. Buddhist docetic texts are clearly troubled by the notion that Buddhas could have flesh-and-blood human mothers. The Mahāparinirvāṇa-mahāsūtra is one such text, and tathāgatagarbha functions as a better substitute for imperfect human maternity: rather than a putrid, painful human womb, buddhahood springs from a “womb” inherent in every sentient being, which promises final liberation from flesh altogether. This book should interest readers concerned with the history of Buddhist ideas, gender in Buddhism, the early Mahāyāna, the cult of the Buddha’s relics, and relations between Buddhist ideas and practice.
Michael Radich, The "Mahāparinirvāṇa-mahāsūtra" and the Emergence of "Tathāgatagarbha" Doctrine. Hamburg Buddhist Studies 5, Hamburg: Hamburg University Press 2015. The book is freely available (PDF).
Vol. 4: Buddhist Cosmic Unity: An Edition, Translation and Study of the "Anūnatvāpūrṇatvanirdeśaparivarta"
von Jonathan A. Silk
The "Anūnatvāpūrṇatvanirdeśaparivarta" is a short Mahāyāna sūtra extant in its entirety only in Chinese translation. To judge from its use as a proof-text in the seminal philosophical treatise "Ratnagotravibhāga", which quotes roughly half of the sūtra, it is a fundamental scripture expressing ideas about the unitary nature of saṁsāra and nirvāṇa, and each individual’s innate capacity for awakening, called in this text and elsewhere ‘tathāgatagarbha,’ ‘embryo of the tathāgatas.’ Although the text has hitherto drawn the attention primarily of Japanese scholars, this is the first critical edition of the sūtra, aligning its Chinese text with the available Sanskrit, offering a richly annotated English translation, a detailed introduction which places the work in its historical and doctrinal context, and a number of appendices exploring key notions, providing a reading text shorn of annotation, and enumerating the prolific quotations of the work found in Chinese Buddhist literature. This volume is thus an important contribution to studies of developing Mahāyāna Buddhism, Buddhist doctrine and the textual history of scriptures.
Vol. 3: A Distant Mirror – Articulating Indic Ideas in Sixth and Seventh Century Chinese Buddhism
herausgegeben von Lin Chen-kuo und Michael Radich
In this book, an international team of fourteen scholars investigates the Chinese reception of Indian Buddhist ideas, especially in the sixth and seventh centuries. Topics include Buddhist logic and epistemology (pramāṇa, yinming); commentaries on Indian Buddhist texts; Chinese readings of systems as diverse as Madhyamaka, Yogācāra and tathāgatagarbha; the working out of Indian concepts and problematics in new Chinese works; and previously under-studied Chinese evidence for developments in India. The authors aim to consider the ways that these Chinese materials might furnish evidence of broader Buddhist trends, thereby problematizing a prevalent notion of “sinification”, which has led scholars to consider such materials predominantly in terms of trends ostensibly distinctive to China. The volume also tries to go beyond seeing sixth- and seventh-century China primarily as the age of the formation and establishment of the Chinese Buddhist “schools”. The authors attempt to view the ideas under study on their own terms, as valid Buddhist ideas engendered in a rich, “liminal” space of interchange between two large traditions.
Lin, Chen-kuo und Michael Radich [Hrsg.], A Distant Mirror – Articulating Indic Ideas in Sixth and Seventh Century Chinese Buddhism. Hamburg Buddhist Studies 3, Hamburg: Hamburg University Press 2014. The book is freely available (PDF).
Table of Content
- Foreword (Zimmermann, Michael) (PDF)
- Acknowledgements (PDF)
- Introduction (Radich, Michael; Lin, Chen-kuo) (PDF)
- Chinese Translations of Pratyakṣa (Funayama, Toru) (PDF)
- Epistemology and Cultivation in Jingying Huiyuan’s "Essay on the Three Means of Valid Cognition" (Lin, Chen-kuo) (PDF)
- The Theory of Apoha in Kuiji’s "Cheng weishi lun Shuji" (Katsura, Shoryu) (PDF)
- A Comparison between the Indian and Chinese Interpretations of the Antinomic Reason (Viruddhāvyabhicārin)(Moriyama, Shinya) (PDF)
- The Problem of Self-Refuting Statements in Chinese Buddhist Logic (Zamorski, Jakub) (PDF)
- A Re-examination of the Relationship between the Awakening of Faith and Dilun School Thought, Focusing on the Works of Huiyuan (Keng, Ching) (PDF)
- A Pivotal Text for the Definition of the Two Hindrances in East Asia: Huiyuan’s “Erzhang yi” Chapter (Muller, A. Charles) (PDF)
- On the Notion of Kaidaoyi (*Avakāśadānāśraya) as Discussed in Xuanzang’s "Cheng weishi lun" (Chu, Junjie) (PDF)
- Yogācāra Critiques of the Two Truths (Yao, Zhihua) (PDF)
- Philosophical Aspects of Sixth-Century Chinese Buddhist Debates on “Mind and Consciousness” (Kantor, Hans-Rudolf) (PDF)
- The Way of Nonacquisition: Jizang’s Philosophy of Ontic Indeterminacy (Ho, Chien-hsing) (PDF)
- Divided Opinion among Chinese Commentators on Indian Interpretations of the Parable of the Raft in the Vajracchedikā (Choong, Yoke Meei) (PDF)
- Ideas about “Consciousness” in Fifth and Sixth Century Chinese Buddhist Debates on the Survival of Death by the Spirit, and the Chinese Background to *Amalavijñāna (Radich, Michael) (PDF)
- The Process of Awakening in Early Texts on Buddha-Nature in India (Zimmermann, Michael) (PDF
- About the Authors (PDF)
- Index (PDF)
Vol. 2: The Dawn of Abhidharma
von Anālayo, Bhikkhu
This book is a companion to Bhikkhu Anālayo’s previous study of the Genesis of the Bodhisattva Ideal. In the present book he turns to another important aspect in the development of Buddhist thought: the beginnings of the Abhidharma. Anālayo shows that the two main modes generally held in academic circles to explain the arising of the Abhidharma – the use of lists (mātrḳā) and the question-and-answer format – are formal elements that in themselves are not characteristic of Abhidharma thought. Going beyond the notion that the coming into being of the Abhidharma can be located in such formal aspects, he shows how the attempt to provide a comprehensive map of the teachings gradually led to the arising of new terminology and new ideas. He identifies the notion of the supramundane path as an instance where fully fledged Abhidharma thought manifests in the discourses. Anālayo concludes that what characterizes the Abhidharma is not the mere use of dry lists and summaries, but rather a mode of thought that has gone further (abhi-) than the Dharma taught in the early discourses in general.
Vol. 1: The Genesis of the Bodhisattva Ideal
von Bhikkhu Anālayo
In this book, Bhikkhu Anālayo investigates the genesis of the bodhisattva ideal, one of the most important concepts in the history of Buddhist thought. He brings together material from the corpus of the early discourses preserved mainly in Pāli and Chinese that appear to have influenced the arising of the bodhisattva ideal. Anālayo convincingly shows that the early sources do not present compassionate concern for others as a motivating force for the Buddha’s quest for awakening. He further offers an analysis of the only reference to Maitreya in the Pāli canon, showing that this reference is most likely a later addition. In sum, Bhikkhu Anālayo is able to delineate a gradual genesis of central aspects of the bodhisattva ideal by documenting (1) an evolution in the bodhisattva concept reflected in the early discourses, (2) the emergence of the notion of a vow to pursue the path to buddhahood, and (3) the possible background for the idea of a prediction an aspirant to buddhahood receives from a former buddha.
Anālayo, Bhikkhu, The Genesis of the Bodhisattva Ideal. Hamburg Buddhist Studies 1, Hamburg: Hamburg University Press 2010. Book Review in the Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies 1, 2011, S. 216–221. The book is freely available (PDF).